1918 is a book by Robert Gerwath a German historian. The book discusses the German revolution of that year, an event little remembered outside the country. One of the interesting things Gerwath illuminates is the ‘stab in the back’ theory which so exercised German nationalists after the war. Germany ‘hadn’t been defeated on the battlefield the army was undermined by forces at home’. Interestingly Gerwath explains that it was an excuse dreamt up by the military high command. Ludendorf had seen his offensive against the British Army fail and with it his military reputation. He launched a second offensive against the French causing his troops to realised that they were being sacrificed uselessly. In short Ludendorf and Hindenburg were in danger of losing the army. The revolution brought into existence a civilian administration and blame for losing the war could be handed over to them.